Race Is Not Over

Race Is Not Over

Race is a mere illusion. It is politics of the struggles born from “class distinctions” that will not disappear. Laws were passed on race relations that led to segregation of inner cities. For example: “Chicago is the most segregated city in the United States.”

Discussions during lecture by Dr. Madeline Troche-Rodriquez and Dr. Anghesom Atsbaha reveals the idea that we live in this post-racial society is not necessarily true. There are some things not discussed or questioned like “whiteness” or perceptions of “White culture” and “white privilege”. On Ethnicity vs. Race, there is non-acceptance of an “interracial identity” or “intermediate” identity. A fellow classmate suggested the “bottle theory” that the reasons behind this might be due to an existing systematic racism that is reinforced through intimidation. Omi and Winant theory of racial formations is that the establishment of “racism are shaped by broader societal forces.”

It is common sense, racial logic, an individual looks around a classroom or campus and see that someone is Black or Asian or White … rather it is an observation made by another individual identity. Perspective, perception, and preconceived truths or notions is the difference between something being “real” and something being of a “social construct” like race or gender. According to Omi and Winant theory of racial formation “broader societal forces determine how and why we view race as we do.”

The 1983 court case Susie Guillory Phipps vs. Louisiana defense ruling made by Attorney General Ron Davis reaffirmed the legality of racial grouping (by genetics). Race has been a matter of scientific interpretations to determine racial classifications. Max Weber and other social Darwinists defined race as social construct. Prior to that, race was thought of as a “biological concept” devised by Linnaeus in System Naturae —the identification and ranking of variations in human beings. This social construction in which race is seen as quote and unquote “the assumption of a continuum of higher” and “lower cultural groups.”

From start of the early 18th century, the ‘Eugenics’ movement throughout Europe—well into 19th Century—prevalent thought existed that anything not of their classification is seen as the “lower” quality of human beings like “non-white” or “savages”. End quote: “Race and the interpretation of racial differences was a central factor in that world view.” Those interpretations were the reasoning behind the white Europeans as the dominant social class. Contemporary psycho-analytic thought finely touched on the most debated of subject matters.

“Hereditary factors shape intelligence’ not only revived the ‘nature and nurture’ controversy but raised highly volatile questions about racial equality itself.” – Arthur Jensen

Francis Galton, a pioneer of hereditary and biometry made a response to an eminent scientist in hereditary genius, Alphonse de Candolle who published works on the effect of social factors on scientific basics. Messieurs de Candolle concluded, “intellectual ability was heritable, and that an individual with high inherited ability could go far in any profession” when nurtured by societal forces.” In response, Sir Francis Galton had written a letter to M. de Candolle titled English Man of Science: Their Nature and Nurture and defined the distinctions between nature and nurture. Bulmer, M.G., Francis Galton, Pioneer of Hereditary and Biometry. Baltimore, Maryland: John Hopkins University Press, 2003:

“Nature is all that a man brings with himself into the world; Nurture is every influence from without that affects him after his birth…” Nature and Nurture is considered a cited reference to Shakespeare’s play “The Tempest” in which Prospero complains about his adopted son Caliban: “A devil, a born devil, on whose nature/Nurture can never stick.” 

No matter ones racial classifications, the nature of an individual with intelligent ability may become prominent. In other words, an individual may become prominent in society, given the nurture of their environment and opportune circumstances.

Superficial indicators attributes to the social, economic, political … broader societal determinants of racial identity as “underprivileged” and “underclass” in racial terms rendered “black” by the establishment and maintenance of a “color line”. What it boils down to is dialectics (language, hyperbole, symbolism) and the representation of false beliefs or elicited truths on what is being signified about the subject. Films like Rain Tree and expunged Marvin Harris theory of hypo-decent explains affiliation with the subordinate group rather than the super-ordinate group that avoids the ambiguity of an “intermediate identity” (the “other” identity not defined as “this” or “that” view of Black & White) keeping away from the racist collective.

The power of the media lies not only in their ability to reflect the dominant racial thought but also in their capacity to shape that ideology in the first place. U.S. Television media lead to the perpetuation of racial caricatures, and lead the audiences to “assign and reassign” racial characteristics to particular groupings. Race is rooted in “nature” and plays the crucial role of politics and ideology shaping race and ethnic relations. Perhaps that is why Japanese competition spurs resentment to this day because they have been the most successful in breaking through to the other side—an “intermediate” identity from interracial mixing otherwise called “marrying up”. “Women on the Verge” by Karen Kelsky, a deeper look into the female psyche on interracial dating, revealed Japanese women desire to mix and procreate with a Caucasian male. Men and women attempt to skirt discriminatory barriers imposed by law and custom through reaching out to the OTHER side, by obtaining an “intermediate identity” and multicultural identity for their children.

Stereotypes influenced by race can be exposed. Subculture, films, and roles portrayed by different classes both in the media, private, and the public are a medium for exposure. African American Denzel Washington is not the first to portray the role of a BLACK president ‘til Jan. 20th Inauguration in 2009. Saturday Night Live skit portrayed a “black” president in a satirical and comedic direct-fashion that exposed perceived truths by societal forces. That exposure disrupted society. However, the dominant social class is resilient if finding innovative ways to reassert or reaffirm super-ordinate authority.

Karl Marx said, “The history of all existing society is the history of class struggles”. It is not necessarily true that we live in a post-racial society or post-class or post-modern anything society. Race is the politics of the struggles born from “class distinctions” that will not disappear. Moses (Moshe) Hess, a secular Jewish philosopher and one of the founders of socialism wrote in the epilogue Rome and Jerusalem” (1862) “the race struggle is the primary and the class struggle is the secondary and with an end to antagonisms … the struggles of race and class comes to a stand still.”

(… Race …) “To see it as a mere illusion which an ideal social order would eliminate. In our view it is crucial to break with these habits of thought. The effort must be made to understand race as an unstable and complex of social meanings constantly being transformed by political struggle.” – Moses ‘Moshe’ Hess, a Jewish philosopher and Socialist

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  • Bulmer, M.G., Francis Galton, Pioneer of Hereditary and Biometry. Baltimore, Maryland: John Hopkins University Press, 2003
  • Theory formulated by cultural anthropologist Franz Boaz, Omi M. and Winant H., Ch.2 Racial Formations.
  • Wikipedia: Moses Moshe Hess quotation(s)
  • Kelsky, Karen. Women on the Verge: http://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/women-on-the-verge-karen-kelsky/1100312013

The Former President Obama Administration Asia Pivot On Hold

The Indomitable Rise of the Sleeping Dragon

The United States engagement with the Asia-Pacific region is due to economic reasons, and not military aggression. It is imperative for the United States to strengthen regional security among China’s neighbors in the South China sea. The inevitable economic rise of China as a global super power brought about a multi-polar world. As a result, the Asia-Pacific region is a strategic priority. The U.S. seeks to re-establish hegemonic dominance by rebuilding its economic strength as its main pillar.

The global community should understand the historical context how China developed into an economic powerhouse. Mao Zedong, influenced by Russia, established communism in China. During the Cultural Revolution, Mao Zedong shaped a Chinese-style communism based on a Confucian dynamic—a philosophy that maintained society through hierarchy and collectivism. During the Great Leap Forward, Mao Zedong policies made the intellectuals devote time to agricultural production and industrialization to modernize China, followed by Deng Xiaoping economic liberalization. This established the People’s Republic of China as the most effective foreign policy initiative established by Russia during the early 19th Century. Then, Mao Zedong closed its doors to Russia.

Henry Kissinger’s “Open Door” policy under Richard Nixon later developed China into a major player on the global stage. The “indomitable rise of the sleeping dragon” brought redistribution of power among nations displaying hegemonic dominance also known as a major geopolitical realignment. However, China rise created problems for the United States. After WWII, the United States benefited from exorbitant privilege: the dollar status as the world’s reserve currency.

The United States Dollar as the reserve currency allowed the United States to borrow cheaply, by selling its assets in return for goods, mostly obtaining resources from the global periphery, and purchasing exports from China, a developing country. The rise of the developing world shook the foundations of the West. Taken by surprise, the imperialist model became unsustainable. America based its economy on the Keynesian model of consumption, outsourcing jobs overseas, resulting in the general decline of a once robust manufacturing & export industry. The standard of living declined for the American middle class. Americans could no longer afford home mortgages and job security, due to changes in the U.S. labor market. The 2007-2009 U.S. financial crisis was the worst recession seen in over a decade.

The core problem at the U.S.-China adversarial relationship is China exploitation of a symbiotic relationship, coined by Niall Ferguson as “Chimerica”. China ran a trade surplus, selling goods in return for financial claims. Firms, households, and government saved more than they were willing to invest at home and played this game for a very long time. Described in the exact words published by Daniel Griswold from the CATO Institute, “China manipulated its currency.” Griswold discussed how the global markets resorted to protectionist measures that spurred a trade war.

The United States and China played a very dangerous game of competitive devaluations that allowed worldwide inflation to hurt domestic economies. Because China used the least acceptable means at maintaining a fixed currency rate by not trading at a floating exchange rate. The U.S. Federal Reserve under Ben Bernanke pushed hard for the rise of the Yuan due to China’s government monopoly over the currency conversions.

According to HSBC Economist report, decades from now, China may strengthen and internationalize the Yuan, allowing it to compete among the world reserve currencies. The most practical thing the United States could do is set the game for multi-polarity in the G-Zero world as coined by Ian Bremmer, the CEO of Eurasia Group, on geopolitical risk analysis. Winners take all. In this G-Zero world, we are all connected by each other rise and fall.

Essay On The Nature of Man

I thought to learn from the collective life new things about the social order. I realized injustice done by others holds a light over mere human weaknesses adorned with the charms of fallible human imperfections. Before that realization, I was indoctrinated to believe that survival is about competition among individual classes, determined by factors such as one’s race, gender, education, and economics. Societal hierarchies accepted, as a fact, the theory of Social Darwinism influenced by Herbert Spencer and other Marxists psychoanalytical orators of their time from the Eugenics movement. Darwin theories influenced the nationalist writer Heinrich von Treitschke and the biologist Ernst Haeckel who influenced Hitler and also the social milieu in which he flourished. Natural selection is currently used in a dialectic fashion, manipulated or rather misconstrued for the survival of the individual or racial group.

This indoctrination of Darwinist thought is to accept at face value from the dominant culture of Europe and the West that society lives in a “dog-eat-dog” world and achieving prominence is about the survival of the fittest” determined by one’s race; a notion by which the power of the ruling elites used in consolidating their supremacy, by perpetuating stereotypes, bigotry, and racism: “If I make any grammatical or spelling errors, it is attributed to my race or ethnic group. If I have a responsible job, I got it because of “quotas” and it is assumed that I am speaking on behalf of my race, if I give my opinion on something.”

There is tremendous authority in the word, to create. Life is about creating the Self. Survival is not about race, gender, education, and economics. Survival is about a way of progression from our shared experiences. Then everything begins to make sense, it is the mind … what it demands is intrinsic to being a human being, living a happy life. At work, I answer to superiors to better a position, or keep employment. At social events, I act on selfish impulses out of a desperate need for attention, or respect. And, when the defenseless attempts to cause problems without looking for solutions, it is to bring down the strong that desires to survive in their cruel environment, in face of the weak struggling to survive in accordance to the human condition. Thomas Hobbes believed that “humans were selfish creatures who would do anything to better their positions; Left to themselves, he thought, people would act on their selfishly motivated impulses.”

In the state of nature and by the laws that govern it, competition is the dualistic force behind the weak and the strong. Thus, competing forces brings about ailments in our society: war and eugenics, conquest, divide and rule, manipulation, cultural subversion, the dominant social classes vying for power and knowledge as instruments of oppression. The time-honored ethic, from the Greek polis, is that men are beings by nature to live in commonalities of, belonging to a community, for the public commonwealth. And their purpose is the ultimate values from which the rest are derived, or with which their end as individuals fulfilled.

The nature of man is bound by natural laws in accordance to their own free will. Thus, the panacea of our society is without question, personal relationships, cooperation, organization, unity, and multi-cultural synthesis (mixing of the genetic makeup different to that of pure-blooded genealogies).I thought “Know Thy Self.” I know how a real human behaves towards another, the moral and ethical capability a human has for good and evil. As a student developing social dexterity in a certain environment, I made the clear observation that survival is centered on social interaction. Survival is based on the natural history belonging to our social dynamic, rather human-to-human interaction to ensure a broader aspect of the human condition: security, happiness, attention, love, knowledge, experience, and fulfillment. After that clear observation made through personal experiences, I was born into the Cartesian actualization of the Self (holistic world view about the Self and human interaction) that Survival is the natural history of humanity progression based on the environment and the complexity of culture.

John Locke defines the Self, in the terms of Paulo Freire Pedagogy of the Oppressed, as being Conscious of Consciousness. Our consciousness is a particular manner of thinking based on reason, sensibility to pleasure and pain capable of happiness or misery, and so is concerned for the Self, as far as that consciousness extends. According to Paulo Freire, “People as uncompleted beings are conscious of their incompletion and their attempt to become more fully human.” Perhaps the mind is a tabula rasa–a blank slate, and it is through our shared experiences, sensations, and a source from which all our innate ideas are born. It is through our innate ideas the mind becomes concerned for that Freudian id: ego –the Self.

Then the intelligent mind gives birth to our modern Prometheus. The nature of man is governed by Natural Laws, docent omnia –everything teaches, rather to learn and accumulate successive knowledge of the self and our environment as an inborn innate idea. “Nosce Te-ipsum” human awareness or consciousness motivates our desire for power and knowledge, “scio nescio” scientific knowledge. “And thus knowledge itself is power” nam et ipsa scientia potestas est, quoted by Sir Francis Bacon.

In the Book of Genesis, the tree of conscience, the Tree of Knowledge on Good and Evil was in the middle of the Garden of Eden from which God directly forbade Adam to eat (Genesis 2:17). Eve, after being tempted and Adam, thus being tempted ate from the Tree of Knowledge. Since the fall of Adam from the Garden of Eden, man is merely acting like God. The Romans and Greeks credited Prometheus, who challenged Zeus by stealing from Mount Olympus the sacred fire–as a source of divine wisdom and inspiration, having fashioned human beings, this endless thirst for infinite-absolute knowledge and understanding of God. Intelligent design, rather our ambitious design is a mere representation of thought into existence, the act of creation.

Events in society reintroduced concepts about Intelligent Design. Heated debate brings to the forefront discussions on creationism and biological evolution. Avoiding false assumptions depends on avoiding the stereotypical ‘either-or’ beliefs on creation and evolution, because man is beginning to have a greater understanding of what it means to be human. Perhaps, humans are becoming androgynous beings with an enlightened understanding of existence —cogito, ergo sum, René Descartes, “I think, therefore I am.” In the Book of Exodus, God said to Moses, “I AM Who I AM” (Exodus 3:13).

The natural history of survival is a gradual continuous progression, with a beginning and an end (alpha and omega), but only in the sense of turning a full circle, leading to the pinnacle of civilization: scientific, technological, spiritual, and social advancement to an earlier and healthier state. The Tree of Life. Hobbes wrote, “The life of man is brutish and short.” Johann Wolfgang von Goethe said, “Ars longa, vita brevis… trust yourself and you will learn the art of living” a life of self-actualized fulfillment: the intellectual, the sensual, the erotic, the aesthetic, and the spiritual. Human beings are merely determined to survive, live life as intuition is to reason … that instinct for survival is the natural history of humanity progression.

Creation is a whole of existence. . . .“On man when he came into life the Father conferred the seeds of all kinds and every way of life. If they be vegetative, he will be like a plant. If sensitive, he will become brutish. If rational, he will grow into a heavenly being. If intellectual, he will be an angel and the son of God. And if, happy in life, he withdraws into the center of his own unity, his spirit, made one with God, in the solitary darkness of God, who is set above all things, shall surpass them all.” – Count Giovanni Pico della Mirandola

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